RFID Drones in IOT and the Smart City

RFID Drones used in IOT applications

Before we look at RFID drones, let’s look at the background of RFID tags.

 

RFID tags

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags have been around since the 1940s and enables to cost effective identification of objects. The ability to connect everything via the internet is referred to as IOT (Internet of Everything). This number of uniquely identifiable connected objects is expected to reach 45 billion soon.

No built-in power sources are added into passive tags

Readers use radio frequency to power up readers and normally fall into class 0 to 3 range.

Class 4 states active tags only which contain their own internal power source to provide energy for specific time period for various operations.

Class 5 deals with active tags and readers only that can read data from various tags.

 

Passive RFIDs

Passive RFID

Passive RFID with stationary reader

 

Passive RFID has no internal power source and can last a life time. They are inexpensive, typically ranging from 15 cents to $5 each and their typical read range is 10m.

Passive RFID tags lend themselves best to  high volume assets moving uniformly through stationary  points of concentration.

 

Active RFIDs

Active RFID

Active RFID with mobile reader

Active RFID is battery powered with a typical lifespan of 5 years. The read range is 100m+ and they are priced from $15+ each.

Active RFID tags lend themselves best to tagging high volume assets moving within designated areas in a random and dynamic manner. And talking about assets moving around, even cattle farmers on large farms have deployed RFID tags and drone based RFID readers with great success.

 

The RFID (IOT) Energy challenge.

The ultimate dream would be to embed active RFID tags in every physical object or asset for reachability,  but clearly cost of including such energy capacities on high numbers of tags is an obstacle.

 

RFID / IOT Systems Architecture

The RFID Systems Architecture consists of 3 components or layers : Services, Network and Perception.

  1. Service
    • This layer transforms the collected data into information content and presents the content via a user interface so that it can be consumed by various business processes to be acted upon.
  1. Network
    • The network layer is responsible for efficient and reliable infrastructure to support the service layer and the large scale industrial applications it supports
  1. Perception
    • This where the data and information about objects existing in the physical world are being collected via a variety of sensors and RFID tags

 

RFID design

RFID Architecture

The RFID Systems Architecture is aligned with, and underpinned by, the internationally adopted OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model which characterises and standardises the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.

 

RFID Applications

RFID functions can be divided into 3 categories: Monitoring, Tracking and Supervising.

RFID tag roles

RFID Applications

 

Monitoring concerns itself with that latest situation of the system – looking for any signs of abnormal behaviour, Tracking provides observation of the object while on the move and Supervising is concerned with the activities or behaviour of the system.

 

Some use cases for UAV based networking applications

– UAVs that are used to provide energy-efficient and reliable IoT uplink connections.

– UAVs able to cache popular content and efficiently serve mobile users by following their mobility patterns.

– UAVs that act as users of the wireless infrastructure for surveillance, remote-sensing.

 

Technology roadmap for RFID and IOT.

The RFID and IOT is increasingly becoming more and more ubiquitous in everyday life and the technology roadmap below provides an outline of its progression.

RFID future

RFID roadmap

 

Communication is very important when deploying UAVs and the following categories of communication technologies are available to UAVs. The first 3 (highlighted) are likely to be the most effective when using UAVs to compliment RFIDs.

 

Category

Technology Data Rate Range Latency

WPAN

WPAN

WLAN

Bluetooth 4.0

Zigbee

802.11a/b/g/n/ac

<1 Mbps

<250 kbps

<600 Mbps

60 m

<100 m

<250 m

50

50

75

WLAN

LPWA

LPWA

Cellular

Cellular

Cellular

Cellular

Cellular

WAVE 802.11p

LoRA

SigFox

NB-IoT

LTE-M

LTE Advanced (4G) LTE D2D

5G

<27 Mbps

<50 kbps

<100 bps

<250 kbps

<1 Mbps

<1 Gbps

<10 Gbps

<1 km

<15 km

<20 km

World wide World wide World wide World wide World wide

50

82

82

75

75

50

25

3

 

One of the hottest technology trends for 2019 and is 5G wireless networking. Other than extremely fast with very high data rates, the wireless network also operates with 90% less energy. But until 5G arrives the energy gap remains the main obstacle with the deployment with RFID (and IOT).

 

In the meantime, the range and reach of drone based RFID readers fits the energy gap (see diagramme) gap perfectly. In an RFID (IOT) environment, due to the limited energy capacity of participating devices, rotary drones can be efficiently and dynamically positioned to allow RFID (IOT devices to transmit with minimum power.

RFID drone reach

RFID Drone sweet spot

 

RFID Drones platforms


The Airborne Drones Vanguard has a flight range of 60 – 90 minutes and able to carry payloads that include multiple sensors which incorporates a RFID reader with ease. The advanced onboard systems enable advanced networking and onboard processing that make the Vanguard a compelling solution with the range and reach to overcome the energy challenges RFID-based asset management requirements.

Airborne Drones UAV

Airborne Drones UAV platform